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Regulation of ferroptosis by lipid metabolism

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Trends Cell Biol. 2023 Jun 21:S0962-8924(23)00086-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2023.05.003. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent lethal mechanism that can be activated in disease and is a proposed target for cancer therapy. Ferroptosis is defined by the overwhelming accumulation of membrane lipid peroxides. Ferroptotic lipid peroxidation is initiated on internal membranes and then appears at the plasma membrane, triggering lethal ion imbalances and membrane permeabilization. Sensitivity to ferroptosis is governed by the levels of peroxidizable polyunsaturated lipids and associated lipid metabolic enzymes. A different network of enzymes and endogenous metabolites restrains lipid peroxidation by interfering with the initiation or propagation of this process. This emerging understanding is informing new approaches to treat disease by modulating lipid metabolism to enhance or inhibit ferroptosis.

PMID:37407304 | DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2023.05.003

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tuck
155 days ago
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Ferroptosis = seed oil toxicity.

"Sensitivity to ferroptosis is governed by the levels of peroxidizable polyunsaturated lipids..."
Weston, Connecticut
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Associations between Plasma Lipid Mediators and Chronic Daily Headache Outcomes in Patients Randomized to a Low Linoleic Acid Diet with or without Added Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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Metabolites. 2023 May 25;13(6):690. doi: 10.3390/metabo13060690.

ABSTRACT

A previous report showed that 12-week lowering of dietary omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) coupled with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (H3-L6 diet) reduced headache frequency and improved quality of life in patients with chronic daily headaches (CDHs) compared to dietary LA reduction alone (L6 diet). The trial also showed that targeted dietary manipulation alters PUFA-derived lipid mediators and endocannabinoids. However, several additional classes of lipid mediators associated with pain in preclinical models were not measured. The current secondary analysis investigated whether the clinical benefits of the H3-L6 diet were related to changes in plasma unesterified PUFA-derived lipid mediators known to be involved in nociception, including prostanoids. Lipid mediators were measured by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass-spectrometry. Compared to baseline, dietary LA lowering with or without added omega-3 fatty acids did not alter unesterified n-6 PUFA-derived lipid mediators, although several species derived from LA, di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid were positively associated with headache frequency and intensity, as well as mental health burden. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-derived metabolites were also associated with increased headache frequency and intensity, although they did not change from the baseline in either dietary group. Compared to baseline, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived epoxides were more elevated in the H3-L6 group compared to the L6 group. Diet-induced elevations in plasma DHA-epoxides were associated with reduced headache frequency, better physical and mental health, and improved quality of life (p < 0.05). Prostanoids were not detected, except for PGF2-alpha, which was not associated with any outcomes. This study demonstrates that diet-induced changes in DHA-epoxides were associated with pain reduction in patients with chronic headaches, whereas n-6 PUFA and ALA metabolites were associated with nociception. Lipid mediator associations with mental health and quality of life paralleled pain management outcomes in this population. The findings point to a network of multiple diet-modifiable lipid mediator targets for pain management in individuals with CDHs.

PMID:37367848 | PMC:PMC10304617 | DOI:10.3390/metabo13060690

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tuck
158 days ago
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Interesting follow-up to the headache research: Essential omega-3 fatty acids offer benefit to headache sufferers.
Weston, Connecticut
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Enhancement of the liver's neuroprotective role ameliorates traumatic brain injury pathology

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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Jun 27;120(26):e2301360120. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2301360120. Epub 2023 Jun 20.

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pervasive problem worldwide for which no effective treatment is currently available. Although most studies have focused on the pathology of the injured brain, we have noted that the liver plays an important role in TBI. Using two mouse models of TBI, we found that the enzymatic activity of hepatic soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was rapidly decreased and then returned to normal levels following TBI, whereas such changes were not observed in the kidney, heart, spleen, or lung. Interestingly, genetic downregulation of hepatic Ephx2 (which encodes sEH) ameliorates TBI-induced neurological deficits and promotes neurological function recovery, whereas overexpression of hepatic sEH exacerbates TBI-associated neurological impairments. Furthermore, hepatic sEH ablation was found to promote the generation of A2 phenotype astrocytes and facilitate the production of various neuroprotective factors associated with astrocytes following TBI. We also observed an inverted V-shaped alteration in the plasma levels of four EET (epoxyeicosatrienoic acid) isoforms (5,6-, 8,9-,11,12-, and 14,15-EET) following TBI which were negatively correlated with hepatic sEH activity. However, hepatic sEH manipulation bidirectionally regulates the plasma levels of 14,15-EET, which rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, we found that the application of 14,15-EET mimicked the neuroprotective effect of hepatic sEH ablation, while 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid blocked this effect, indicating that the increased plasma levels of 14,15-EET mediated the neuroprotective effect observed after hepatic sEH ablation. These results highlight the neuroprotective role of the liver in TBI and suggest that targeting hepatic EET signaling could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for treating TBI.

PMID:37339206 | DOI:10.1073/pnas.2301360120

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tuck
171 days ago
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That's a surprise! The liver dynamically produces brain-protective factors in response to injury.
Weston, Connecticut
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Calorie restriction and pravastatin administration during pregnancy in obese rhesus macaques modulates maternal and infant metabolism and infant brain and behavioral development

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Front Nutr. 2023 May 15;10:1146804. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1146804. eCollection 2023.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity has been associated with a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications in mothers and offspring; however, effective interventions have not yet been developed. We tested two interventions, calorie restriction and pravastatin administration, during pregnancy in a rhesus macaque model with the hypothesis that these interventions would normalize metabolic dysregulation in pregnant mothers leading to an improvement in infant metabolic and cognitive/social development.

METHODS: A total of 19 obese mothers were assigned to either one of the two intervention groups (n = 5 for calorie restriction; n = 7 for pravastatin) or an obese control group (n = 7) with no intervention, and maternal gestational samples and postnatal infant samples were compared with lean control mothers (n = 6) using metabolomics methods.

RESULTS: Gestational calorie restriction normalized one-carbon metabolism dysregulation in obese mothers, but altered energy metabolism in her offspring. Although administration of pravastatin during pregnancy tended to normalize blood cholesterol in the mothers, it potentially impacted the gut microbiome and kidney function of their offspring. In the offspring, both calorie restriction and pravastatin administration during pregnancy tended to normalize the activity of AMPK in the brain at 6 months, and while results of the Visual Paired-Comparison test, which measures infant recognition memory, was not significantly impacted by either of the interventions, gestational pravastatin administration, but not calorie restriction, tended to normalize anxiety assessed by the Human Intruder test.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the two interventions tested in a non-human primate model led to some improvements in metabolism and/or infant brain development, negative impacts were also found in both mothers and infants. Our study emphasizes the importance of assessing gestational interventions for maternal obesity on both maternal and offspring long-term outcomes.

PMID:37255938 | PMC:PMC10225656 | DOI:10.3389/fnut.2023.1146804

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tuck
191 days ago
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"...negative impacts were also found in both mothers and infants. Our study emphasizes the importance of assessing gestational interventions for maternal obesity on both maternal and offspring long-term outcomes."
Weston, Connecticut
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Neuroprotective effect of herbal extracts inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and cyclooxygenase (COX) against chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in mice

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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2023 May 3;667:64-72. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2023.05.008. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is a novel clinical condition characterized by memory, learning, and motor function deficits. Oxidative stress and inflammation are potential factors contributing to chemotherapy's adverse effects on the brain. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been proven effective in neuroinflammation and reversal of memory impairment. The research aims to evaluate the memory protective effect of sEH inhibitor and dual inhibitor of sEH and COX and compare its impact with herbal extracts with known nootropic activity in an animal model of CICI. In vitro sEH, the inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Sizygium aromaticum, Nigella sativa, and Mesua ferrea was tested on murine and human sEH enzyme as per the protocol, and IC50 was determined. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), methotrexate (5 mg/kg), and fluorouracil (5 mg/kg) combination (CMF) were administered intraperitoneally to induce CICI. The known herbal sEH inhibitor, Lepidium meyenii and the dual inhibitor of COX and sEH (PTUPB) were tested for their protective effect in the CICI model. The herbal formulation with known nootropic activity viz Bacopa monnieri and commercial formulation (Mentat) were also used to compare the efficacy in the CICI model. Behavioral parameter such as cognitive function was assessed by Morris Water Maze besides investigating oxidative stress (GSH and LPO) and inflammatory (TNF╬▒, IL-6, BDNF and COX-2) markers in the brain. CMF-induced CICI, which was associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. However, treatment with PTUPB or herbal extracts inhibiting sEH preserved spatial memory via ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation. S. aromaticum and N. sativa inhibited COX2, but M. Ferrea did not affect COX2 activity. Lepidium meyenii was the least effective, and mentat showed superior activity over Bacopa monnieri in preserving memory. Compared to untreated animals, the mice treated with PTUPB or hydroalcoholic extracts showed a discernible improvement in cognitive function in CICI.

PMID:37209564 | DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2023.05.008

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tuck
199 days ago
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Interesting. (The memory-preserving compound is known commercially as "Mentat". Heh.)

"Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is a novel clinical condition characterized by memory, learning, and motor function deficits. Oxidative stress and inflammation are potential factors contributing to chemotherapy's adverse effects on the brain. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been proven effective in neuroinflammation and reversal of memory impairment."
Weston, Connecticut
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The Education Department Helps Combat Woke Discrimination

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The Office for Civil Rights has pressed several med schools to ditch illegal race-based policies.
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tuck
211 days ago
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Medicine is going racist, apparently. Not good.
Weston, Connecticut
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